ARC means a Securitisation company(SC) or Reconstruction company(RC) registered under the Companies Act, 1956 and which has obtained a certificate of registration from Reserve Bank of India to commence or carry on the business of securitisation or assets reconstruction under section 3 of the SARFAESI Act, 2002 . A SC or RC apart from undertaking securitisation and reconstruction activities may also carryout the following functions provided under section 10 of the Act :
The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) prescribed uniform accounting standards for asset reconstruction companies (ARCs) for acquiring non-performing loans, recognising revenue and management fees to ensure common treatment for firms.
Pursuant to the recommendations of the Key Advisory Group (KAG) constituted by the Government of India on the Asset Reconstruction Companies (ARCs), Reserve Bank of India advises the guidelines on uniform accounting standard for ARCs as under:
a. Acquisition cost (Pre and post acquisition)
Expenses incurred at pre acquisition stage for performing due diligence etc. for acquiring financial assets from banks/ Fls should be expensed immediately by recognizing the same in the statement of profit and loss for the period in which such costs are incurred.
Expenses incurred after acquisition of assets on the formation of the trusts, stamp duty, registration, etc. which are recoverable from the trusts, should be reversed, if these expenses are not realised within 180 days from the planning period [In terms of RBI Notification No.DNBS.2/CGM(CSM)-2003, dated April 23, 2003 planning period means a period not exceeding twelve months allowed for formulating a plan for realization of nonperforming assets (in the books of originator) acquired for the purpose of reconstruction] or downgrading of Security receipts (SRs) (i.e. Net Asset Value(NAV) is less than 50% of the face value of SRs ) whichever is earlier.
b. Revenue Recognition-
(i) Yield should be recognised only after the full redemption of the entire principal amount of Security Receipts. (ii) Upside income should be recognized only after full redemption of Security Receipts. (iii) Management fees may be recognized on accrual basis. Management fees recognized during the planning period must be realized within 180 days from the date of expiry of the planning period. Management fees recognized after the planning period should be realized within 180 days from the date of recognition. Unrealised Management fees should be reversed thereafter. Further any unrealized Management fees will be reversed if before the prescribed time for realisation, NAV of the SRs fall below 50% of face value. [In terms of RBI Notification No.DNBS.2/CGM(CSM)-2003, dated April 23, 2003 planning period means a period not exceeding twelve months allowed for formulating a plan for realization of non-performing assets (in the books of originator) acquired for the purpose of reconstruction.]
c. Valuation of Security Receipts (SRs)
Considering nature of investment in SRs where underlying cash flows are dependent on realization from non performing assets, it can be classified as available for sale. Hence investments in SRs may be aggregated for the purpose of arriving at net depreciation/ appreciation of investments under the category. Net depreciation, if any shall be provided for. Net Appreciation, if any should be ignored. Net depreciation required to be provided for should not be reduced on account of net appreciation.
d. Applicability of ‘Operating Cycle Concept’ under Schedule VI
SC/ RCs are advised in their balance sheet to classify all the liabilities due within one year as “current liabilities” and assets maturing within one year along with cash and bank balances as “current assets”. Capital and Reserves will be treated as liabilities on liability side while investment in SRs and Long term deposits with banks will be treated as fixed assets on the assets side. 3. The accounting guidelines will be effective from the accounting year 2014-15.
Value Maximization in NPAs occurs only after detailed workout involving restructuring. To make this exercise successful, infusion of fresh funds to scale up operations to optimal level is essential. While RBI has already issued Guidelines for disbursal of Restructuring Support Finance (RSF) by ARCs to scale up operational efficiency, source of funding is constricted due to paucity of funds with ARCs. To make restructuring viable, depth of liquidity is a necessary pre-condition. ARCs can contribute maximum to the growth of economy by successful turnaround of companies increasing capacity, boosting output and improving employment. Here ARCs should be permitted to draw upon deep pockets with necessary skill and resources to work out viable turnaround cases.
At present Funds mobilized from investors is utilized only for acquisition of financial assets.
Foreign Investment in India has been the direct outcome of the liberal trade policies undertaken and implemented by successive governments. The liberalization program of the government aims at rapid and substantial growth of the country’s economy and besides a harmonious integration with global economy. While foreign investment in India comprises of investments made by overseas companies in India, the reverse i.e. outflow of foreign investment from India is also prevalent in the Indian economy. Foreign investment in India has created some wonderful opportunities in the country in terms of creating employment and improving the basic infrastructure of the country.
Foreign Investment in India has huge potentials. However, foreign investment in India has its own share of advantages and disadvantages. Overseas investors must prepare themselves well in advance to face with adversities and deal with them properly. Some of the drawbacks that investors may have to face are bureaucratic hassles, infrastructural deficiencies, power shortages and sometimes political uncertainty. Despite these uncertainties, India presents a huge potential to global players to invest in the market. Many leading overseas brands have already invested while some of the companies have plans in the pipeline to invest in India.
The government has undertaken various liberal policy decisions to make the whole process of foreign investment in India hassle free. Some of the foreign investment policies include:
1. The list of industries that are eligible for automatic approval of foreign investment has been expanded by the Ministry of industry.
2. The upper limit of the rate of foreign investment in India has been raised to 74% from the earlier 51%; in some cases this has been increased to 100%.
3. Indian companies will no longer need prior clearance from the reserve Bank of India, RBI for inward remittance of foreign exchange or for issuing of shares to foreign investors.
4. The exchange control regulations has been amended by the government.
5. The ban against the use of foreign brand names/trademarks has been removed.
6. The corporate rate of corporate tax on foreign companies has been reduced from 65% to 55% by the government in the annual budget of 1994-95.
7. The government reduced long term capital gains rate for overseas companies to 20%.
8. Under the Indian Income Tax Act, export earnings are exempted from corporate income tax for both overseas and domestic firms.
9. 100% inflow of foreign investment is permitted in strategic sectors such as roads, ports, tunnels, highways and harbors on the condition that the total investment in any of the sector should not exceed ` 1500 crore.
10. Any increase within the prescribed limit does not require permission from the foreign investment promotion board.